Varicose veins:  
dilated or bulging veins caused by non-functioning valves leading to reflux of blood from the deep veins into the superficial veins of the leg.

Spider veins (telangiectasia):  
small superficial red or blue veins located in the skin usually in the legs but can also be found on the face, breasts and other areas of the body.

Reticular veins:  
small bluish or greenish veins just below the skin which often fill spider veins.

Sclerotherapy:  
injection of a mild detergent or irritating solution into veins which causes the vein to close off, preventing blood from flowing through it.

Foam sclerotherapy:  
air is added to the basic sclerotherapy solution which greatly increases the surface area of the solution in contact with the vein wall decreasing the amount of fluid needed for treatment.

Ligation and stripping:  
surgical procedure where incisions are placed in the groin and lower leg allowing for the insertion of a stripper device into a main superficial vein that has leaking valves.   The vein is then pulled out of the leg which eliminates the reflux or cause of varicose veins.  

Microphlebectomy (stab avulsion):  
surgical procedure where tiny (1-2 millimeter) incisions are made over varicose veins through which small specialized hooks are placed to remove the varicosities.  

Radiofrequency ablation (VNUS Closure):  
catheter-based treatment where a catheter (small tube) is inserted via a needle stick into a main superficial vein with leaky valves.   The catheter emits radiofrequency waves which produces heat inside the vein.   As the catheter is retrieved it seals the vein closed eliminating the reflux which caused the varicose veins without incisions and with minimal bruising.

Veinwave:  
employs microwaves to heat spider veins so that the walls of the vessel stick together, eliminating flow, which creates instant disappearance of the vein.